B.7 Testing and development of air pollution mitigation strategies

This action is aimed at testing and developing PM mitigation measures for Southern Europe.

The measures undertaken by AIRUSE were focused on three major emission sectors in Southern Europe:

  • Road dust emissions
  • Biomass burning emissions
  • Industrial emissions (stack and diffuse)

Concerning the road dust emissions, AIRUSE presents the first comprehensive analysis of measures efficacy in Southern Europe given that most of previous studies have been carried out in Northern Europe and their applicability in the Mediterranean region is questionable due to the higher solar radiation and faster road surface moisture evaporation.

Concerning biomass burning emissions, AIRUSE made use of the combustion facility of the University of Aveiro (Portugal). Tested measures were those aimed at avoiding formation of pollutants (primary measures) or by removal of such substances from exhaust gases (secondary measures). The optimization of solid fuel combustion process by introduction of continuously controlled conditions (automatic fuel feeding, distribution of combustion air) and modification of the fuels granulation are among the primary measures to be tested. The use of catalytic converters or filter technologies is

a secondary measure, which may lead to significant reduction in particle emissions. The results of this burning tests enable to quantify how much emission estimates will change as a result of the adoption of each one of the abatement strategies, and consequently, how much the ambient PM2.5 or PM10 levels will be reduced.

Finally, mitigation strategies concerning industrial emissions have been revised and proposed, taking into account the legislation on industrial emissions and the actions stemming from the application of that policy.

 

The scientific basis of street cleaning activities as road dust mitigation measure.

Road dust emissions increase considerably PM concentrations in urban air, causing exceedances of the air quality standards for PM10 (2008/50/EC), and related health effects also due to the high content of heavy metals and carbonaceous compounds.

This review is the result of the compilation of the available scientific documents reporting results on the effectiveness of road sweeping and washing activities in reducing PM emissions due to road dust resuspension. This document is aimed to gather all available and relevant information (often not in English), and divulge them among relevant stakeholders. The present report is updated to October 2013.

B7 3 ES_road cleaning

 

Dust suppressants campaign – CMA and MgCl2

April 16 – May 23

During April and May 2013 the full width of Industria road (9 m) was spread only during dry and working days according to the following calendar: Phase 1: 25% CMA aqueous solution (ICE & DUST-AWAY, Nordisk Aluminat) was spread on a 1400 m stretch in the morning of 16th, 17th and 18th April; Phase 2: 25% CMA aqueous solution was spread on a 2300 m stretch in the morning of 22nd, 23rd, 24th April and 2nd, 6th, 8th, 13th May; Phase 3: 20%…

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Methods used in Barcelona to evaluate the effectiveness of CMA and MgCl2 in reducing road dust emissions

Calcium-Magnesium Acetate (CMA) has been proposed as dust binder and its application on paved roads was recently tested in Sweden, Austria, Germany and UK in order to mitigate road dust emissions (Norman and Johansson, 2006; www.life-cma.at; Barratt et al., 2012). These previous studies showed that in most cases a reduction of kerbside PM10 concentrations was reached, even if short lived (few hours). The effectiveness of CMA in binding deposited particles seems to be closely related to the degree of road moisture (Gustafsson et al., 2010). This is a crucial aspect, mostly when evaluating the potential effectiveness in South European environments, where the higher solar radiation might further reduce the life-time of the air quality benefit. MgCl2 has been also proposed and tested in Norway as a possible dust suppressant due its high hygroscopic and deliquescent properties. This is the first study evaluating CMA and MgCl2 in a South European city, characterized by a relatively dry climate.

B7 1 ES_BCN CMA and MgC12

CMA campaign at industrial site

26 June, 2014 – 31 July, 2014

Among the measures to reduce PM emissions, the application of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) on roads was tested to prevent or reduce emissions of PM by resuspension of dust previously deposited on circulating ways, at both URBAN and INDUSTRIAL areas, with high traffic density.

Concerning INDUSTRIAL areas, AIRUSE has performed tests both on paved and unpaved industrial roads.

The study was carried out from 26th June 2014 until 31st July 2014 with the cooperation of l’Ajuntament de l’Alcora (the City Council and the local police), as well as with the companies located at the selected road.

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Effects of road dust suppressants on PM levels in a Mediterranean urban area. Environmental Science and Technology  – Under review

 Amato F., A. Karanasiou, P. Cordoba, A. Alastuey, T. Moreno, F. Lucarelli, S. Nava, G. Calzolai and X. Querol 2014

Dust suppressants campaign – Nano polymer

18 March, 2013 – 23 April, 2013

This study evaluates the effectiveness of a commercial nano polymer as dust suppressant, applied in a central public garden in Barcelona where sand resuspension due to human activities used to provoke PM10 exceedances. A 10-20 nm amphiphilic polymer (Optimafil, ©Optimasoil) was applied on the total area of Can Mantega public gardens (6200 m2) in Barcelona. According to the manufacturer, the high specific surface area (ratio surface/total atoms of 0.06), high solubility and no toxicity make it an environmental friendly dust suppressant.…

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Effectiveness of nano polymer as fugitive dust suppressant at an urban air quality monitoring site

This report presents the study carried out in Barcelona (Spain) by IDAEA-CSIC for the evaluation the effectiveness of a commercial nano polymer as dust suppressant, applied in a central public garden in Barcelona where sand resuspension due to human activities used to provoke PM10 exceedances.  A 10-20 nm amphiphilic polymer  was applied on the total area of Can Mantega public gardens (6200 m2) in Barcelona. Results show that the polymer-induced decrease, averaged over a 7 months period, was estimated at 2.9-4.5 µg/m3 (up to 11% of PM10 concentrations). 

 B7 4 ES_Nanopolymer revised_Page01 

Public Transport Network in Barcelona: Measures to improve air quality

 A review was undertaken on the transport system of Barcelona and possible measures to improve air quality during commuting were discussed.

 B7 2 ES TMB mesures