B.1 Documentation of the current status
This action aims to:
1) catalogue/describe previous source apportionment studies in urban areas of South European countries (Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece);
2) identify gaps and omissions in these previous conducted studies;
3) recommend priorities with regards the emission sources in urban areas of Southern Europe.
Project beneficiaries from Spain, Portugal, Italy and Greece conducted a review on previous studies concerning emission sources. Following strict quality control procedures, the collected data are introduced in 4 historical databases.
Source apportionment of ambient PM has been carried out at many urban areas (Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece). Different receptor modelling approaches were employed for this purpose, based on the ambient concentration levels of particles and their chemical speciation.
The different sources identified and their relative contributions (%) are reported in this review, along with the source apportionment models used and the size fraction studied.
The main sources identified include road/soil dust, traffic, fuel oil, biomass burning, marine aerosol, secondary sulphate and industry. In the studies where PMF and ME-2 was employed the generated factors provided information on chemical source profiles and source contribution. For the CMB modelling the chemical source profiles from the receptors were successfully reconstructed by local source profiles. In the cases were simple statistical procedures were used (PCA and MLR), unidentified sources were resolved. The main conclusion of this literature search is that sophisticated factor analysis methods like PMF and hybrid models like ME-2 can provide useful information on the source mass contribution in cases where the local emission profiles are not known.
The historical PM chemical composition databases were compiled at each city by AIRUSE beneficiaries and gathered in an excel file. More specifically:
- in Barcelona PM10 and PM2.5 chemical speciation data from 2007 to 2010.
- in Florence PM10 and PM2.5 chemical speciation data from September 2009 to 2010.
- in Oporto PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 chemical speciation data in 2003.
- in Athens PM10 and PM2.5 chemical speciation data from 2002 to 2003.